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Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material  (TENORM)

What are NORM and TENORM?

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) is radioactive material present in the environment; (i.e., soils, air and water) that is not man-made. NORM includes uranium (U), radium (Ra), and thorium (Th) and they emit low levels of naturally occurring radiation. NORM can be found everywhere. Since these materials are found in the natural environment, NORM is exempted from regulation by the State of Ohio.

 

When NORM is used for commercial purposes, processed, separated, or in some other manner has its radioactivity concentrated (intentionally or unintentionally), it becomes another category of radioactive material called TENORM, which is regulated by the Ohio Department of Health. TENORM is the same group of NORM radionuclides, but it has been modified or “technologically enhanced” resulting in a man-made concentration higher than NORM.

 

 

What Are Common Examples of NORM?

  • Radon gas that homeowners may detect in basements and living spaces;
  • Potassium-40 in all plants and animals, including humans;
  • Krypton-80 that is in the atmosphere and air we breathe;
  • Carbon-14 that is taken in by all organic matter and can be measured thousands of years later to determine its age in the process known as  “carbon dating”;[
  • Uranium and thorium and their decay products commonly used in stone work, including granite countertops used in residential kitchens;
  • Marble used for cemetery markers, statues, and building veneers;  
  • Granite and limestone walls used in buildings;
  • Radium in deep drinking water aquifers that causes additional burdens to water treatment plants;
  • Uranium while it is still in the ground, before it is mined and processed into fuel rods for use in nuclear reactors.  

 

What Are Common Examples of TENORM?

  • Phosphate fertilizers;
  • Coal industry wastes including fly ash, bottom ash and slag;
  • Oil and gas industry wastes including scale and sludges;
  • Water treatment plant wastes including sludges and resin filtration systems;
  • Metal mining and processing wastes; and
  • Geothermal energy production wastes

 

Where Can I Find TENORM Regulations?

 

ODH TENORM rules can be viewed at the following web link: http://www.odh.ohio.gov/rules/final/37011/3701_1-43-TENORM

 

 

Mailing Address:

Ohio Department of Health

of Environmental Health and Radiation Protection

Agreement State Program

246 North High Street

Columbus, OH 43215

 

Telephone: (614) 644-2727
Fax: (614) 466-0381
E-mail: Bradiation@odh.ohio.gov  

 

Updated 8/11/2017